Assessment concepts

Attainment

The level of achievement reached by a child in respect of a sequence of learning.

Achievement

The progress which a child has made in meeting learning challenges.

Ability

The capacity which a child has to learn, which may be specific to particular areas of learning.

Standards

The specification of a specific level of educational achievement to which pupils and teachers should aspire.

Criterion-referenced assessment

The process of making assessments against a specific criterion related, for example, to a specific piece of work.

Non-referenced assessment

The process of making assessments with reference to relative achievement against other pupils in the cohort.