Classroom strategies

Two very readable booklets summarising the work of Black, Wiliam and colleagues at King’s College London in helping teachers translate into practice findings about formative assessment are:

•   Black, P. and Wiliam, D. (1998) Inside the Black Box: Raising Standards through Classroom Assessment, London: School of Education, King’s College.

•   Black, P., Harrison, C., Lee, C., Marshall, B. and Wiliam, D. (2002) Working Inside the Black Box: Assessment for Learning in the Classroom, London: Department of Education and Professional Studies, King’s College.

The King’s team have also authored a series of subject specific booklets, (for example, English Inside the Black Box, Geography Inside the Black Box) all published by nferNelson. Their work on the King's Medway Oxfordshire Formative Assessment Project is the source for their book:

•   Black, P., Harrison, C., Lee, C., Marshall, B., & Wiliam, D. (2003). Assessment for Learning: Putting it into Practice, Buckingham: Open University Press.

Clarke has been one of the biggest influences on primary assessment practices and her books, based on work with teachers, offer a practical and structured approach to implementing formative assessment in primary schools.

•   Clarke, S. (2003) Enriching Feedback in the Primary Classroom, London: Hodder and Stoughton.

•   Clarke, S. (2005) Formative Assessment in Action: Weaving the Elements Together, London: Hodder and Stoughton.

She extended her work into secondary schools in a book that includes references to the King’s Medway Oxfordshire Formative Assessment Project.

•   Clarke, S. (2005) Formative Assessment in the Secondary Classroom, London: Hodder Murray.


Many other authors and organisations offer helpful guidance on classroom assessment strategies:

•   AAIA Primary Assessment Practice: Evaluation and Development Materials.

•   AAIA (2002) Secondary Assessment Practice: Self Evaluation and Development Materials.

•   AAIA South-West Region (2000) Pupils Learning from Teachers’ Responses,

•   Askew, S. (ed.) (2000). Feedback for Learning. London: RoutledgeFalmer.

•   Blanchard. J. (2009) Teaching, Learning and Assessment, Maidenhead: Open University Press.

•   Earl, L. (2013) Assessment as Learning: Using Classroom Assessment to Maximise Student Learning: 2nd Edition, Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.

•   Glassard, J., Chadwick, A., Webster, A. and Percival, J. (2010) Assessment for Learning in the Early Years Foundation Stage, London: Sage.

•   Hall, K. and Burke, W. (2003) Making Formative Assessment Work: Effective Practice in the Primary Classroom, Buckingham: Open University Press.

•   Harlen, W. (2005) Teaching, Learning and Assessing Science 5-12 (4th ed.), London: Paul Chapman Publishing.

•   Heritage, M. (2010) Formative Assessment: Making it Happen in the Classroom, Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.

•   Irons, A. (2008) Enhancing Learning Through formative Assessment and Feedback, Abingdon: Routledge.

•   Lambert, D. and Lines, D. (2000) Understanding Assessment, London: RoutledgeFalmer.

•   Muschamp, Y. (1991) ‘Pupil Self Assessment’, Practical Issues in Primary Education, No. 9. Bristol: National Primary Centre (South West), 1-8. (Reading 13.4)

•   Spendlove, S. (2012) Putting Assessment for Learning into Practice, London: Continuum. (Reading 13.3)

•   Torrance, H. and Pryor, J. (1998) Investigating Formative Assessment, Buckingham: Open University Press.

•   Weedon, P., Winter, J., and Broadfoot, P. (2002) Assessment: What's In It for Schools? London: RoutledgeFalmer.

•   Wiliam, D. (2011) Embedding Formative Assessment, Bloomington, IN: Solution Tree Press.

•   Wragg, T. (2001) Assessment and Learning in the Primary School, London: RoutledgeFalmer.