The influence of classroom environments on teachers and children has been a research topic for many years. For a classic study on `socio-emotional climate’ and a description of how an adult’s leadership style can affect the behaviour of a group, see:
- Withall, J. (1949) `The Development of a Technique for the Measurement of Social-Emotional Climate in Classrooms’, Journal of Experimental Education, No. 17, pp 347 – 361.
The ‘emotional side of teaching and learning’, the need to build and sustain warm relationships between teachers and learners and the `art' of maintaining relationships while teaching is described by:
- Kristjánsson, K. (2010) The Self and its Emotions, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
- Cooper, B. (2011) Empathy in Education: Engagement, Values and Achievement, London: Continuum.
- Watson, D., Emery, C. J. and Bayliss, P. (2012) Children's Social and Emotional Wellbeing in Schools. Bristol: Policy Press.
- Humphrey, N. (2013) Social and Emotional Learning: A Critical Appraisal, London: SAGE.
- Woods, P. and Jeffrey, B. (1996) Teachable Moments: The Art of Teaching in Primary Schools, Buckingham: Open University Press.
For practical ways in which fostering caring relationships and the development of a positive classroom culture can promote learning, see:
- Dalton, J. and Watson, M. (1997) Among Friends: Classrooms Where Caring And Learning Prevail, Oakland CA: Developmental Studies Centre.
The influential work of Carl Rogers provides important insights on relationships for learning. He suggests that three basic qualities are required if a warm, `person centred' relationship is to be established acceptance, genuineness and empathy. Good relationships are, according to Rogers, founded on understanding and on `giving'. For an introduction to his work and an exploration of the ways in which good quality relationships can help to facilitate learning, see:
- Rogers, C. (1969) Freedom to Learn, New York: Merrill.
For an examination of the emotional factors that enter into the process of teaching and learning and insights into the nature of pupil-teacher relationships, see:
- Pianta, R.C. (1999) Enhancing Relationships between Children and Teachers, Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
- Salzberger-Wittenberg, I., Henry, G. and Osborne, E. (1983) The Emotional Experience of Learning and Teaching, London: Routledge.
A more general overview of research on classroom relationships is provided by:
- Brophy, J.E. and Good, T.L. (1974) Teacher Student Relationships, New York: Cassell.
For background information and a framework for understanding child protection issues, see:
- Beckett, C. (2003) Child Protection: An Introduction, London: Sage.
- Munro, E. (2002) Effective Child Protection, London: Sage.
- Kay, J. (2002) Protecting Children: A Practical Guide, London: Continuum.
It is now recognised by many that successful learners need to be active participants in learning relationships with others. For a development of this view supported by examples of classroom practice, see:
- Kitson, N. and Merry, R. (eds) (1997) Teaching in the Primary School, Learning Relationship, London: Routledge.
- Collins, J., Harkin, J. and Nind, M. (2001) Manifesto for Learning, London: Continuum.
For fascinating studies in which collaborative learning methods were developed so that relationships became the basis for learning, see:
- Biott, C. and Easen, P. (1994) Collaborative Learning in Staffrooms and Classrooms, London: David Fulton.
- Salmon, P. and Claire, H. (1984) Classroom Collaboration, London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.
There is now a wealth of material about childhood identities and peer relationships in childhood and adolescence. For an overview of the nature and significance of children's peer relationships and an examination of the context of children's relationships, see:
- Bukowski, W.M., Newcomb, A.F. and Hartup, W.W. (eds) (1996) The Company They Keep: Friendships in Childhood and Adolescence, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
- Erwin, P. and Hinton, P. (1998) Friendships in Childhood and Adolescence, London: Routledge.
For a book which offers teachers a wide variety of possible strategies that should enable groups and individuals to have better relationships with each other, see:
- Roffey, S., Tarrent, T. and Majors, K. (1994) Young Friends, Schools and Friendship, London: Cassell.
For a further discussion of peer relationships and the way in which they can support learning, see:
- Cowie, H. and Wallace, P. (2000) Peer Support in Action: From By standing to Standing By, London: Paul Chapman.
- Gallas, K. (1998) ‘Sometimes I Can Be Anything’: Power Gender and Identity in a Primary Classroom, London: Teachers College Press.
Teaching can only be regarded as successful if the learners are learning. Generally speaking, for this to be achieved the learners have to be involved in the process of learning and they have to appreciate that the effort which is required of them is worthwhile. For insights into children’s perspectives on teacher-pupil relationships, see:
- Pollard, A. and Triggs, P. (2000) What Pupils Say: Changing Policy and Practice In Primary Education, London: Continuum
An appreciation of the processes in social interaction and relationships which influence emotional growth and learning is important for work with all children, and especially those who are troubled. For a theoretical and practical resource that helps adults to explore the nature of their own participation in facilitating emotional growth and learning see:
- Greenhalgh, P. (1994) Emotional Growth and Learning, London: Routledge.
The connection between family relationships and individual development are discussed in:
- White, D. and Woollett, A. (1991) Families: A Context for Development, London: Falmer.
There are a lot of books on the relationships between homes, schools and children's learning. Some exceptional ones are listed below. The first provides a rare portrait of a group of working-class families whose four year old children start school in the same year. It analyses the ways in which parents, children and teachers strive to cross cultural and linguistic boundaries to come to a common understanding of school.
- Brooker, L. (2002) Starting School: Young Children Learning Cultures, Buckingham: Open University Press.
- Athey, C. (1990) Extending Thought in Young Children: A Parent-Teacher Partnership, London: Paul Chapman.
The following are rapidly becoming classics,
- Grant, D. (1989) Learning Relations, London: Routledge.
- Tizard, B. and Hughes, M. (1984) Young Children Learning, London: Fontana.
For children's perceptions of adult-child relationships in their home, neighbourhood and school, see:
- Alanen, L. and Mayall, B. (2001) Conceptualising Child-Adult Relations, London: FalmerRoutledge.
For insights into the views of children who are disaffected or troubled in school, see:
- Wise, S. (2000) Listen To Me: The Voices of Pupils with Emotional and Behaviour Difficulties, Bristol: Lucky Duck Pub Ltd.
- Klein, R. (2003) We Want Our Say: Children As Active Participants In Their Education, Stoke on Trent: Trentham Books.
- Danforth, S. and Smith, T. J. (2005) Engaging Troubled Students: A Constructivist Approach, California: Corwin Press.
For an introduction to educational therapy and a therapeutic perspective on children’s relationships with parents, siblings, teachers and peers, see:
- Brannen, J., Heptinstall, E. and Bhopal, K. (2000) Connecting Children: Care and Family Life in Later Childhood, London: Routledge Falmer.
- Dunn, J. (1993) Young Children’s Close Relationships: Beyond Attachment, London: Sage.
- Barrett, M. and Trevitt, J. (1991) Attachment Behaviour and the School Child: An Introduction to Educational Therapy, London: Routledge.
For a discussion of 'learning relationships' and issues related to identity and learning aimed specifically at teaching assistants and support staff, see:
- Hancock, R. and Collins, J. (Eds) (2005) Primary Teaching Assistants: Learners and Learning, London: David Fulton.