On lesson planning, Haynes provides accessible and practical guidance. Hattie draws implications from his exceptional synthesis of international evidence on effective lesson design and teaching practices.
- Haynes, A. (2010) The Complete Guide to Lesson Planning and Preparation, London: Continuum. (Reading 10.5)
- Hattie, J. (2012) Visible Learning for Teachers: Maximising Impact on Learning, London: Routledge. (Reading 10.7)
For practical guidance for both experienced teachers and trainees, see Kyriacou; Jacques & Holland; and Wyse. For such guidance placed in the context of the wider teaching and learning process, see Hughes, Dean, and Arthur, Grainger & Wray:
- Kyriacou, C. (1998) Essential Teaching Skills: 2nd. Edition, Cheltenham: Stanley Thornes.
- Jacques, K. and Hyland, R. (2003) Achieving QTS - Professional Studies: Primary Phase (2nd Edition), Exeter: Learning Matters.
- Wyse, D. (2002) Becoming a Primary School Teacher, London: RoutledgeFalmer
- Hughes, P. (2002) Principles of Primary Education Study Guide (2nd. Edition), London: David Fulton
- Dean, J. (2001) Organising Learning in the Primary School Classroom (3rd. Edition), London: RoutledgeFalmer
- Arthur, J., Grainger, T. and Wray, D. (2006) Learning to Teach in the Primary School, London: Routledge
In weekly planning, and especially in lesson planning, differentiating work for the range of pupils in the class is of vital importance if they are to be engaged with their learning. Drawing on the work of a range of authors, Simpson and O'Brien & Guiney offer an analysis of the implications for learning of different forms of differentiation, whilst McNamara & Moreton provide practical guidance. Taking account of individual differences is one theme of Muijs and Reynolds’s wide-ranging book.
- Simpson, M. (1997) ‘Developing Differentiation Practices: Meeting the Needs of Pupils and Teachers’, The Curriculum Journal, Vol 8, No 1, pp 85-104.
- O'Brien T. and Guiney, D. (2001) Differentiation in Teaching and Learning, London: Continuum
- McNamara, S. and Moreton, G. (1997) Understanding Differentiation: A Teachers Guide, London: David Fulton.
- Muijs, D. and Reynolds, D. (2001) Effective Teaching: Evidence and Practice, London: Paul Chapman
The needs of those at the Foundation Stage are significantly different from those of older pupils - see Anning, Hurst and the QCA/DfEE 2000:
- Anning, A. (ed) (1995) A National Curriculum for the Early Years, Buckingham: Open University Press.
- Hurst, V. (1992) Planning for Early Learning: The First Five Years, London: Paul Chapman.
- QCA/DfEE (2000) Curriculum Guidance for the Foundation Stage, London: HMSO
In addition, the needs of pupils with special educational needs, or those who are deemed 'gifted', are very significant - see Croll & Moses ( Reading 10.6 ); Roaf & Bines ( Reading 15.5) ; and Eyre & McClure.
- Eyre, D. and McClure, L. (eds) (2001) Curriculum Provision for the Gifted and Talented in the Primary School: English, Maths, Science and ICT, London: David Fulton
Delivering a full National Curriculum in some circumstances is extremely difficult, and through the statementing process it may be necessary to 'disapply' parts of the curriculum where they are inappropriate - see Jones & Charlton, and DfES 2001.
- Jones, K. and Charlton, T. (1992) Learning Difficulties in the Primary Classroom.
At a practical level, differentiation strategies can be presented in lesson planning in various ways. In fact Kerry and Kerry, in discussing differentiation in work for high attaining pupils, identify fifteen different methods.
- Kerry, T. and Kerry, C. (1997) ‘Differentiation: Teachers' Views Of The Usefulness Of Recommended Strategies In Helping The More Able Pupils In Primary And Secondary Classrooms’ in Educational Studies, 23 (3), 439-457.
In planning lessons, ICT should never be used as a cosmetic 'add on', as Loveless & Dore argue. For a perspective on ICT in the early years, Siraj-Blatchford and Whitebread.
- Loveless, A. & Dore, B. (eds) (2002) ICT in the Primary School, Maidenhead: Open University Press.
- Siraj-Blatchford, J. & Whitebread, D. (2003) Supporting ICT in the Early Years, Maidenhead: Open University Press.
Teaching strategies should always, of course, be considered during short term planning, and Joyce, Calhoun & Hopkins look at a range of teaching models offering a wide repertoire of strategies for teachers.
- Joyce, B., Calhoun, E. and Hopkins, D. (2002) Models of Learning - Tools for Teaching, Buckingham: Open University Press
The issue of assessment is considered in detail in Chapter 14 of 'Reflective Teaching'. One issue tackled is that of pupil involvement in assessing their own work. This can be a powerful tool in helping teachers to develop self-assessment as part of the pupil learning process - see Clarke, and Muschamp (Reading 13.4). Formative assessment necessarily provides the evidence base for future planning; with this in mind, Black et al. provide research-based analyses of the connections between assessment and planning.
- Clarke, S. (2001) Unlocking Formative Assessment: Practical Strategies for Enhancing Pupils' Learning in the Primary Classroom, London: Hodder and Stoughton.
- Clarke, S. (2003) Enriching Feedback in the Primary Classroom, London: Hodder and Stoughton.
- Black, P., Harrison, C., Lee, C., Marshall, B. and Wiliam, D. (2003) Assessment for Learning: Putting it into Practice, Maidenhead: Open University Press