Dilemmas, reflection and effectiveness

The dilemmas in educational decision-making, which suggest that reflection is a continually necessary element of teaching, are analysed in a seminal work by Berlak and Berlak:

And thirty years ago, Calderhead captured some of the complexities of teaching that suggest that reflective action is vital and unavoidable:

For analyses on the nature of professional knowledge and its potential to enhance learning, see:

Lawrence Stenhouse and other seminal writers provide a theoretical base for an exploration of the relationship between professional practice and research.

Many other writers have built on their work:

The significance of learning and developing practice with colleagues is elaborated in:

In teacher education a basis for reflection in the UK has been firstly competences and latterly standards. Information about Standards changes from time to time and from country to country; such information can be obtained from government sources. Some writers include reference to national standards in texts focused on reflective practice, e.g.